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Nutrition, Science

Does eating Celery burn calories? The Science about ‘Negative Calorie’ diets (finally).

1.31.10 CeleryScience can be great for answering life’s little questions – you know, the sort of thing you ponder whilst sitting on the toilet or waiting for the number 49 bus. Does chewing gum take seven years to digest? No. Will eating bread crusts make your hair curl? You should be so lucky. Will eating an apple a day keep the doctor away? Probably not, but it might do you some good. Once in a while, there’s a question that is a bit harder to prove one way or the other.

Take celery. I was recently asked whether eating it caused you to lose weight. Sounds crazy, but the logic behind it is half plausible. It goes something like this: Celery has hardly any calories in it (6 calories per stalk) and the process of digesting food burns energy. Because celery is quite a bulky, fibrous plant it’s going to take a lot of chewing and digesting. Surely that’s more than those meager six calories? If true – eating celery will help you loose weight.

After a bit of digging into the scientific literature, I think I may be able to resolve the negative calorie food debate once and for all…

Negative Calorie Foods – Fact or Fiction?

Try googling ‘negative calorie diet’. You’ll be faced with a feast of websites that encourage eating celery, kale or kelp noodles to help lose weight. Search a bit longer and you will find dozens of articles, equal in number, arguing for and against the efficacy of a ‘negative calorie’ diet. Most of them offer a fairly reasoned, logical argument about why some foods can or cannot burn more energy than they yield. Few of them refer to any kind of scientific research (at least that I’ve found). And as we all know, a lack of research is insufficient to prove or disprove a theory.

Kiss management!So first off, a bit of science:

Every time we eat, some of the energy (calories) contained in the food is lost – given off as heat. Put another way, at least 200kcal – the same as a small chocolate bar – is expended every day for the process of eating and digesting food. This energy ‘waste’ is called the thermogenic effect of food, dietary-induced thermogenesis or the ‘specific heat of feeding’. Or the thermic effect of food. Love scientists. Why use one term when four will do?

So the question we need to ask is: Does eating celery have a greater thermogenic effect than 6 calories per stalk?

If the answer is yes then the negative calorie foodies are right. If not, then raw celery advocates are making a lot of people flatulent for no good reason.

And the science says…

Oddly enough, no one has yet got round to measuring a person’s heat production after a celery meal. But fret not: a sizable amount of research has been done examining how the thermogenic effect of food changes depending on the type of food you eat.

You can measure the thermogenic effect of food by putting someone in a whole body calorimeter and asking them to eat. Measurements show that some foods are digested with little heat loss (fat-based foods have a small thermogenic effect), whereas high protein foods are the opposite and generate a lot of heat – presumably because the body has to work harder to digest it. The thermogenic effect of protein probably explains the ‘meat sweats’ sensation after a particularly heavy night’s meat binge. (click here to read my post on meat sweats)

Celery consists of mostly water and fiber. So what is the thermogenic effect of fiber and water? Almost nothing.

Remarkably, if you put someone in a whole body calorimeter and give them a high-fiber diet and their post-food thermogenesis (heat production) is actually reduced compared to a normal diet (references below). Supplementing a balanced 240kcal meal with 3 grams of fiber (equivalent of five celery stalks) reduces the overall thermogenic effect of the meal by 19kcal. This effectively means that of the 30 Calories gained from eating your celery stalks, 19 Calories fewer is used processing it than if it didn’t have the fiber in it.

So, the negative calorie diet fans are wrong: after being chewed, the fiber in celery gets passed through the gut and out the other end without the body doing too much to it on the way. Although that chewy celery stalk takes a while to munch – the gut doesn’t waste much time on it. No increased energy burn. No celery induced weight loss.

Of course, there are many reasons for adding fiber to your diet – they keep you feeling full and confer lots of health benefits. But burning up calories they do not.

I wonder how much heat burning a negative calorie diet book produces.


Thanks for reading – feel free to leave comments below…


Mikkelsen PB, Toubro S, & Astrup A (2000). Effect of fat-reduced diets on 24-h energy expenditure: comparisons between animal protein, vegetable protein, and carbohydrate. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 72 (5), 1135-41 PMID: 11063440

Raben A, Christensen NJ, Madsen J, Holst JJ, & Astrup A (1994). Decreased postprandial thermogenesis and fat oxidation but increased fullness after a high-fiber meal compared with a low-fiber meal. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 59 (6), 1386-94 PMID: 8198065

Westerterp, K. (2004). Diet induced thermogenesis Nutrition & Metabolism, 1 (1) DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-1-5

About Stuart Farrimond

I love writing about science and health subjects. Strange, because I also teach the same things. I trained as a medical doctor before turning my hand to other things. Shortlisted for The Guardian/Observer for Science Writer of the Year 2011 and editor for Guru Magazine I also like to grow large pumpkins...


17 thoughts on “Does eating Celery burn calories? The Science about ‘Negative Calorie’ diets (finally).

  1. Equally though, celery probably doesn’t actually provide 6 kcal. The given calorific energy of food is worked out by burning it, that includes the energy in the fibre itself. If that fibre is simply passing through the gut it isn’t getting turned into a form that the body will use. So how the calorific value of the celery stalk may well be less than 6 kcal, meaning the overall calculation is wrong.

    Posted by Jack Aidley | April 11, 2012, 10:34 am
  2. What about the energy consumed while chewing? Is that significant?

    Posted by werdnagreb | April 11, 2012, 7:19 pm
  3. health foods are always necessary for our health. i am very concerned about healthy eating since i am not getting any younger. ”’`’

    Posted by Mathilde Giessler | October 7, 2012, 8:19 am
  4. I think consuming high fibre and low calorie diet is the right way to loose weight. Celery is rich in fibre so a thumbs up for that. Also, you do need some carbs to get you going for the day.

    Posted by Capri | September 24, 2014, 1:20 pm
  5. Hallo Dr. Stu! Commenting all the way from Nigeria! I have been concerned about losing some excess weight I put on during the last holiday season and so I was surfing d net about celery and weight loss and came across your blog. Just this morning, I had already juiced a combo of garlic, ginger, lemon, parsley and celery and consumed a glass of it, believing that the celery would help me burn fat (I did add a little fresh Date Palm syrup prepared by me, to make it interesting) However, your blog says different! (LOL) Although, I trained as a lawyer, I have a passion for healthy lifestyle and would like to look 30 even when I’m 50! And so, I would appreciate helpful suggestions from you. I enjoyed reading your article because, not only was it enlightening, it was humourous as well. Thanks a lot!

    Posted by Jane Iyalla | December 6, 2014, 2:28 pm
    • Hi there!
      As per the post, celery certainly doesn’t have ‘negative calories’. It’s a good source of fibre, although if you’ve removed the pulp after juicing then it won’t even have this.
      None of those ingredients will stimulate weight loss, although fresh plant-based foods are an important source of nutrients.
      Sadly, healthy eating and weight loss advice is frighteningly familiar: Don’t eat too much, eat mostly plants, exercise.
      Oh, and patience. Because one pound of fat contains about 3,500 calories (not precise, I know, before anyone emails), so cutting back on a chocolate bar (say 200kcal) per day will take two and a half before you lose one pound.

      Posted by Stuart Farrimond | December 8, 2014, 10:43 am
  6. Did you include ALL contributions ?
    (NB. Even if 1000% of the energy in sellery were converted to heat, you would most likely not be able to measure it inside your chamber, due to heat-noise from oher factors)

    Posted by Jesper C. | January 16, 2015, 2:31 pm
  7. Good article. I appreciate you writing this to debunk this god-awful myth. I was hoping it was true, but obviously isn’t (or at least it doesn’t seem to be so far). I wonder where people get the ideas like this… such as; protein powder doesn’t have calories…. -.-

    Posted by Travis McKinstryu | June 3, 2015, 8:27 pm
  8. I really enjoyed your post. I agree with the whole thermo argument, but you are missing the entire point. Eating raw foods like celery, kale, carrots, typical diet foods, and eating them raw, your body does not have to use up that many resources to digest it. Thats true. But you still gain caloric burn, because your body is well fed, not wasting energy on digesting food, and thus has more energy used to for other things, like burning fat. Ask anyone that has gone raw for 18 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, or days. You will notice a ramp up in your energy level, caloric burn, and thus weight loss.

    No one cares HOW celery makes you burn calories. You are right. I doubt it comes from digestion, producing a negative effect upon eating it. But the total generic effect? Eating celery vs something less clean, is probably going to burn cleaner, and your body will experience an uptick in metabolism..

    Celery, kale, cucumbers, carrots, beets, and more, they are all good, preferably organic, so the chemicals wont slow you down.

    and celery is on sale right now!!! so are organic lemons!

    Posted by cleanating | March 30, 2016, 11:51 pm
    • Thanks for commenting.
      I’m not sure what you mean when you say that you ‘gain caloric burn, because your body is well fed, not wasting energy on digesting food”. Could you explain a little more? I’m also a bit confused what you mean by ‘clean’ food.

      Posted by Stuart Farrimond | March 31, 2016, 8:19 am


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